Consolidated Versions of the Treaty on the European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (April 15, 2008)


The treaty under international law between the 27 member states of the European Union was signed in Lisbon in 2007 and entered into force on December 1, 2009. The treaty adopted parts of the EU Constitutional Treaty, which had been rejected in referendums in France and the Netherlands in 2005. Ireland initially rejected the treaty in a referendum in summer 2008 but agreed to ratify it in October 2009. In Germany, Federal President Köhler signed the treaty on September 23, 2009.




Article 1

By this Treaty, the HIGH CONTRACTING PARTIES establish among themselves a EUROPEAN UNION, hereinafter called ‘the Union’, on which the Member States confer competences to attain objectives they have in common.

This Treaty marks a new stage in the process of creating an ever closer union among the peoples of Europe, in which decisions are taken as openly as possible and as closely as possible to the citizen.

The Union shall be founded on the present Treaty and on the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (hereinafter referred to as ‘the Treaties’). Those two Treaties shall have the same legal value. The Union shall replace and succeed the European Community.

Article 2

The Union is founded on the values of respect for human dignity, freedom, democracy, equality, the rule of law and respect for human rights, including the rights of persons belonging to minorities. These values are common to the Member States in a society in which pluralism, non-discrimination, tolerance, justice, solidarity and equality between women and men prevail.

Article 3

1.  The Union's aim is to promote peace, its values and the well-being of its peoples.

2.  The Union shall offer its citizens an area of freedom, security and justice without internal frontiers, in which the free movement of persons is ensured in conjunction with appropriate measures with respect to external border controls, asylum, immigration and the prevention and combating of crime.

3.  The Union shall establish an internal market. It shall work for the sustainable development of Europe based on balanced economic growth and price stability, a highly competitive social market economy, aiming at full employment and social progress, and a high level of protection and improvement of the quality of the environment. It shall promote scientific and technological advance.

It shall combat social exclusion and discrimination, and shall promote social justice and protection, equality between women and men, solidarity between generations and protection of the rights of the child.

It shall promote economic, social and territorial cohesion, and solidarity among Member States.

It shall respect its rich cultural and linguistic diversity, and shall ensure that Europe's cultural heritage is safeguarded and enhanced.

4.  The Union shall establish an economic and monetary union whose currency is the euro.

5.  In its relations with the wider world, the Union shall uphold and promote its values and interests and contribute to the protection of its citizens. It shall contribute to peace, security, the sustainable development of the Earth, solidarity and mutual respect among peoples, free and fair trade, eradication of poverty and the protection of human rights, in particular the rights of the child, as well as to the strict observance and the development of international law, including respect for the principles of the United Nations Charter.

6.  The Union shall pursue its objectives by appropriate means commensurate with the competences which are conferred upon it in the Treaties.

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Consolidated Versions of the Treaty on the European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (April 15, 2008), published in: German History Intersections, <> [December 01, 2023].