Religious Orders and Demarcations


The 16th century saw growing efforts to demarcate Christianity from other religions, especially Judaism and Islam. “German” was coupled with “Christian” and thereby became a religious category either explicitly or implicitly. Moreover, political matters in the Early Modern period were closely tied to religion and confession, and wars were thus religious or confessional in nature. Polemical writings and texts about the “Turkish War” (i.e., the war against the Ottoman Empire, 1683–1699) and diverse anti-Jewish writings from the era attest to the exclusion and persecution of non-Christians, while illustrating, more generally, the extent to which religious differences pervaded both politics and everyday life. It is worth emphasizing, however, that heretics and witches were also persecuted within the context of Christendom.


  1. < Baptism, Belonging, and Christian Community
  2. Religious Confession >