Made in Germany


Germans today are often proud of their country’s industrial and technological prowess, which helped form the basis for a healthy Mittelstand (middle class). This sense of pride goes hand in hand with the label “Made in Germany,” which has become a powerful marketing tool. But in the nineteenth century, at a time when more established countries sought to protect their own industries, Germany was often associated with shoddy goods, worker exploitation, and unfair trade practices. Although “Made in Germany” is now recognized as a marker of quality worldwide, the label has a complicated history and has been used in problematic and provocative ways.


  1. < Debating National Interest in the Expulsions of Poles and Jews, 1885-86
  2. Worker Activism in the Nineteenth Century >